Means of Psychological Support of Rural Youth Migrating to City
The author considers the main social and psychological meaning of support for rural youth in the process of migration to city. It is substantiated that moving from rural to a fundamentally different urban environment is a difficult life situation and it may be accompanied by various kinds of maladaptive manifestations. The main destructive experiences during migration can be anxiety, tension, confusion, helplessness and pessimism. The expediency of using different directions and forms of work with different categories of young migrants is sustained for rural high school students at the stage of their decision on moving, for rural students and rural youth working in the city. Effective means should be aimed on actualizing the social mobility of rural youth, enhancing their self-perception in the new environment, raising the level of reflection and the ability to set life goals in the light of the real social situation and achieve them. An important element for adequate adaptation is increasing of migrant’s identity, the ability to deliberately make choices and take responsibility for its consequences, that is, to constantly improve itself in the process of personal development. The main directions of this work should be related to the stimulation of the development of such personal qualities as independence, responsibility, integration, as well as controllability of cognitive and emotional activity. The author's program of social and psychological training of rural students’ adaptation to urban environment, which has five modules, is described. The purpose of the training is to promote the psychological adaptation of rural students to a new social environment, finding optimal behavior patterns in urban environment, developing skills for constructive communication and effective interaction with urban residents. This program has been tested by practical psychologists of a number of institutions of higher education, which prove its effectiveness and expediency in using with rural students.