Organizational model of suicide (bullycide) or its attempts in educational institutions: analysis of foreign experience
An epidemic of suicide is spreading in the world, which, according to UNICEF, has become the third most common cause of death for young people aged 15-19. Typically, one school suicide affects about 135 people around the suicide, leading to suicide clusters, mental disorders, and other dangerous consequences. At present, Ukraine has developed a scientifically sound set of tools for diagnosing suicidal ideation, early intervention, and crisis intervention in case of suicide attempts, in particular in educational institutions. At the same time, fasting as psychological support for affected groups and individuals remains the most minor developed part of the suicide prevention system in educational institutions. The article aims to analyze foreign models (protocols) of suicide and determine the directions of development of the domestic model of post-support of the staff of the educational institution in which the suicide (bullycide) or his attempt occurred. Protocols of preventive measures developed and applied as models in five countries are analyzed: Australia, Great Britain, Belgium, Canada, USA. According to the results of the analysis, invariant (which are in all protocols) and variable (which are in some, but not in other protocols) components of the structure are distinguished. Invariant components of postvention protocols are creating a crisis team responsible for crisis response, early development, and creation of crisis response routes, early training of relevant specialists, chronological regulation of postvention process, normalization of behavior, standardization of behavior, communication, and social space organization. Variable components primarily reflect the community's cultural, socio-economic, political-psychological specifics for which the protocol is developed. Creating a suicide protocol (bullycide) adapted to domestic realities or trying to commit it in an educational institution will reduce the destructive impact of a suicide episode on people at risk, including the likelihood of suicide clusters, retraumatization of the immediate environment, etc.; will contribute to the faster normalization of the socio-psychological climate in the educational institution and its return to normal operating conditions.