Model of victims’ socio-psychological support in emergency conditions
The article presents a model of socio-psychological support of victims at all stages of the emergency. The methodological basis of the study were the provisions on stress and distress (G. Cellier), the requirements on psychological preparedness for emergencies (V. Dukhnevich), and the achievements of crisis, extreme psychology (Yu. Alexandrovsky). Theoretical analysis of the literature on this issue was used as research methods; systematization and generalization of concepts, approaches, and research in social and psychological support of victims of emergencies. The stage of emergency deployment is considered: 1) the stage of vital reactions; 2) stage of acute emotional shock; 3) stage of psychophysiological demobilization; 4) stage of actual completion; 5) recovery stage; 6) stage of distant reactions. Objective risks are described for each stage; life tasks; features of psycho-emotional states; typical psychological, behavioral reactions; ethical dilemmas; manifestations of constructive and destructive behavior; necessary self-regulation skills; social and psychological assistance needed by victims. It is concluded that the socio-psychological support of victims of emergencies is a gradual solution to specific life tasks of an individual or group, which allows minimizing the negative consequences for physical and mental health at each stage of the emergency. Creating protocols for each of the stages of the emergency will further help to standardize the socio-psychological support of victims. Thanks to the implementation of the proposed model in training rescuers, it will be possible to create an image of constructive action at each stage of the deployment.