Socio-psychological preconditions for the formation of preschool children group identity
The study aims to determine the socio-psychological prerequisites for forming group identity in preschool children in kindergarten on the example of interpersonal interaction of children and memories of an adult and on this basis to build a research model. Signs of group identity of children in preschool are the experience of interest in interacting with a particular group of peers, the desire to be accepted, and at the same time hostility or lack of interest in other peers. The group identity of a child is formed from the first day of his life since the child's upbringing is focused on inclusion in the family - the first social group, on the formation of worldview, which is inherent in this social group. Kindergarten is the second crucial social environment where a child develops his group and ego-identity, not just where children are when their parents are at work. The components of group identity are the desire to be in a group, feel like a member of this group, attitude to representatives of other micro and macro groups, retransmission of parents' social identity (for example, attitudes, etc.). The author's questionnaire (respondents) covered the first two components of the group identity. The percentage of loneliness among peers in modern children (35.5%) and adults (27.1%) who attended kindergarten more than 30 years ago remains quite significant, which shows that this problem has existed for decades and needs more attention from scientists. Lack of play partners and frequent conflicts with peers lead to negative self-esteem, fear of communicating with children, and other toxic experiences and, consequently, risks of victimization in the future. The survey showed that the socio-psychological prerequisites for the formation of positive group identity of preschoolers are features of building children's interaction: the development of children's communicative skills, openness to interaction, direct interest in another child, lack of bias based on subconscious adult introjects and attitudes to support children. The other features are the involvement of the educator in the process of interaction of children: assistance in resolving conflict situations with peers, identifying children who can not build friendly relations and helping them to overcome barriers; quality feedback from the educator to the parents and vice versa; teamwork of all group staff; supervision of educators. At the same time, the preconditions also include awareness and living by the educator of their own personal children's injuries caused by their acceptance or non-acceptance by the children's team. Based on theoretical and empirical pilot research, the model of study of preschool children's group identity, which contains components, preconditions of formation, criteria of formation, and success of social and psychological competence in a circle of peers, is constructed.