Narcissism as a personality trait of youth: sex and gender aspects
Narcissism as a phenomenon, widely analyzed mainly in the discourse of clinical psychology and psychotherapy, begins to attract attention as the one without any pathological content that appears as a reaction to the demands of nowadays. The paper considers the “healthy” aspect of narcissism as a personality construct, the main function of which is to maintain a holistic positive self-image, to preserve and recognize one’s own worth. The aim of the article is to define the differences between types (manifestations) of the personality’s narcissism in young adults with different gender identities. An empirical study using a block of Ukrainian versions of questionnaires to diagnose different aspects of narcissism – Narcissistic Personality Inventory (NPI-16) and the Hypersensitive Narcissism Scale (HSNS), a Bem Sex and Role Inventory (BSRI), and a projective verbal test “Who Am I?” by M. Kuhn and T. McPartland, gave an opportunity to disclose a number of patterns. Generally, youth have an average level of personal narcissism, although its sensitive form has somewhat higher levels. It is revealed that, regardless of sex, the more the masculine traits are developed, the higher the level of grandiose personal narcissism is, and, on the opposite, the lower the level of vulnerable narcissism is. Despite the closeness of masculinity and grandiose narcissism in the aspect of a positive self-image, some other aspects, mainly perceived social and family roles, are different. Among the feminine individuals, compared to the other types of gender identification, the highest level of vulnerable (sensitive) narcissism is found, which is the different result compared to the one obtained in Western studies, and may be explained by the cultural differences in respondents. The data on the more expressive manifestation of grandiose narcissism in undifferentiated in the gender aspect respondents (who show the low levels of both masculinity and femininity) attracts attention and opens an opportunity to study the peculiarities of narcissism in the context of gender incongruence.