Theoretical model of psychosocial support for veterans of Anti-Terrorist Operation / Joint Forces Operation in conditions of hybrid war and peace
It is developed a theoretical model of sociо-psychological support for veteran’s re-adaptation in the context of hybrid war and peace. It is represented the two veterans’ dynamics in the post-traumatic states and the adaptivity by means of case study method. There are stated the factors of re-traumatic impact on the veterans’ personality in the conditions of hybrid war and peace. Among the external social factors there are outlined the continued gunning and deaths of the militaries and civilians in the East of Ukraine, and the pro-Russian sentiment of some Ukrainian citizens; among the psychological factors – the internal conflict of the “enemy” and the “defender” sub-personalities, and the projections and inadequate behaviour caused by this inner conflict. It is outlined the necessity of socio-psychological assistance in the re-adaptation of veterans and their families to neutralize and eliminate the destructive effect of these factors. It is identified the motivations for veterans’ supportive care, such as the opportunity to help their peers, the psyche strengthening, the family relationships improving, and the providing of proper quality of life for the family and the country. It is developed the theoretical model of veterans’ re-adaptation support, and it is shown the expediency of using the principles of team creation, and technology of peer-to-peer interaction in the re-adaptation process. As the central element of the model, it is identified the team of specialists and veterans who are the participants in the re-adaptation program; the peripheral elements of the model include a network of public and state organizations which work in the field of psychological, medical, and social support of veterans. There are outlined such elements as the public organizations: regional veterans’ and volunteers’ organizations; the governmental organizations: regional departments of the Ministry of Veterans Affairs, military hospitals, social centres for the family, children, and youth, employment centres, territorial centres of social service, etc. There are distinguished such units in the model’s structure: rehabilitation and prevention, social and professional adaptation, research, and information. The rehabilitation and prevention unit should protect veterans from re-traumatization, addiction and suicidal behaviour in the face of hybrid war and peace in Ukraine. The social and professional adaptation unit aims to assist veterans in finding jobs and the necessary professional qualifications obtaining. The research unit should ensure the effectiveness of the support implementation, should monitor the obtained results, and optimize the feedback between the main structural elements of the psychosocial support and the system in general. The information unit should provide the necessary information regarding the exchange of experience between the users and specialists of the centre; should inform the potential users, partner organizations, and other community members about the challenges and achievements in veterans’ support. Further studies are aimed at the investigation of the developed model’s effectiveness, the conditions, and means of its dissemination in the regions of Ukraine.